What is the working of a Kaplan Turbine?

Kaplan turbine is a well-known form of the reaction turbine. Water flows both inside and out of Kaplan turbines alongside its rotational axis (axial drift). What makes Kaplan generators unique is the blades can alternate their perspective on call for to maintain most efficiency for one-of-a-kind drifts charges of water. Water flowing thru a Kaplan turbine loses pressure, which means a Kaplan turbine is a reaction turbine (similar to a Francis turbine).

The vicinity that water can input these generators is large, identical to the whole region that the blades occupy. The massive area of Kaplan turbine causes them to most beneficial where massive volumes of water waft and may be used even in dams with notably low head. This is in particular vital as previous to the development of the Kaplan turbine; maximum mills have been best appropriate for huge heads of water. Viktor Kaplan designed this turbine off of the layout of ship propellers, and because of that they paintings basically in the opposite manner as propellers.

It became the first hydraulic turbine which paintings in low head and high drift charge. Kaplan turbine is also called the propeller turbine due to the fact its blades are similar to the propeller and running phenomena is identical but opposite in course and this make Kaplan turbine in shape for use in rivers and occasional head region. It became evolved in 1913 by Austrian professor Viktor Kaplan.

See also: How Impulse turbine work?

Kaplan turbine Working

Kaplan turbine works on the principle of axial flow response. In axial waft generators, the water flows thru the runner alongside the direction parallel to the axis of rotation of the runner. … It’s far capable of working at low head and high float prices very successfully that’s not possible with Francis turbine. The operating head of water is low so massive glide quotes are allowed in the Kaplan turbine. The water enters the turbine thru the guide vanes which might be aligned together with to give the float an appropriate degree of swirl decided in step with the rotor of the turbine. The drift from manual vanes passes thru the curved passage which forces the radial flow to the axial path with the initial swirl imparted by the inlet guide vanes that is now in the form of loose vortex.

The axial waft of water with a factor of swirl applies force on the blades of the rotor and loses its momentum. So, both linear and angular momentum produces rotation and torque in the shaft. This shaft is hooked up with a generator and shaft turns the coil of the generator. And on this way power produces via the generator. The scheme for production of hydroelectricity through Kaplan turbine is identical as that for Francis turbine.

Components of Kaplan Turbine


The term “runner” inside the Kaplan turbine plays a vital position. The runner is the rotating part of the turbine in which enables in the production of strength. The axial goes with the flow of water acting at the runner vanes causes the runner to rotate.

The shaft is hooked up to the shaft of the generator.

The runner of this turbine has a huge boss on which its blades are connected and the blades of the runner are adjustable to a most advantageous perspective of attack for max strength output.

The blades of the Kaplan turbine have twist alongside its period.

Twist along its length within the Kaplan turbine is supplied because to have usually the optimum angle of strike for all pass-phase of blades and therefore to attain greater performance of the turbine.


Hub is the component on which blades of the turbine are attached that’s attached to the central shaft of the turbine


Blades of the Kaplan turbine are just like the propeller. Blades of other axial turbine are planer but that of Kaplan are not planer as an alternative they’re of twist shape alongside the duration to allow the swirling waft of water at entrance and exist.

Guide vanes or wicket gates

That is the handiest controlling a part of the entire turbine. Which opens and closes relying upon the call for of energy requirement. Guide vanes are becoming thru a positive perspective to modify the waft.

Whilst the greater strength output necessities, it opens wider to permit extra water to hit the blades of the rotor. And while low power output requires, it closes to stop the drift of water. When the guide vanes are absent then the turbine can not work efficaciously and in order that the performance of the turbine decreases.


Rotation motion of the blades is switch to the generator by shaft that is a long solid a part of the turbine.

Blade control mechanism

Blades at factor of their attachment have movable joints. Blade manage mechanism manipulate the attitude of attack with the aid of which water will strike the blades via rotating the blades due to their movable joint.

Governing mechanism

Governing mechanism manage the motion of the guide vanes. When strength requirement is high it open the manual vane and whilst energy requirement is low is close the guide vanes.

Scroll casing

The entire mechanism of the Kaplan turbine is closed in a casing referred to as scroll casing.

The scroll casing is a spiral form of casing that decreases the move-section place. First, the water from the penstocks enters the scroll casing and then actions to the guide vanes.

From the manual vanes, the water turns via 90° and flows axially via the runner.

The scroll casing protects the runner, runner blades, guide vanes and different inner components of the turbine from outside damage to the turbine.

Draft tube

ultimately, water is discharged to the tailrace through a step by step increasing tube called the draught tube.  The draft tube is channel that connects runner go out to tail race from which water is discharged from the turbine. Its major function is to lessen the speed of water discharged to limit the loss of kinetic power at the hole. Draft tube decreases the rate of the water with the aid of increasing its vicinity.

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